Head protectors for martial arts such as Karate and Taekwondo are more often called helmets because some of them are used in combination with face masks similar to a motor cycle helmet. Martial arts headgear consists of dipped foam rubber. The latex based material feels very soft and absorbs light blows very effectively. In brand new condition it is also able to withstand a small amount of strikes with medium intensity. The material looses its ability to recover after it has been exposed to hard strikes or a certain amount of medium powered impacts.
Since traditional martial arts from Japan and Korea are non-contact or light contact sports karate helmets are just designed for occasional hits. Another purpose is to soften the impact of a fall when a practitioner hits his head on the floor after being knocked out by a head kick. Those helmets were not designed to withstand multiple blows from different directions like in boxing. Karate helmets easily slide off and impair sight. They are not recommended for boxing.
The first martial arts headgear was designed and manufactured by Korean-American Taekwondo Grandmaster John Rhee. He was also the inventor of the first safety gear for sport karate. His safety kicks and punches enabled martial artists of all styles to compete in fights with full contact. Boxing champion Sugar Ray Leonard used his headgear for training in the mid 80ies. He liked the soft material that allowed him to train while suffering from facial injuries.
The first time karate helmets were used in professional fighting was in Paris in 1976 when a squad of the best American kickboxers competed in a fullcontact event against top fighters from Europe including Frenchman Dominique Valera. The event was over-shadowed by the headgear’s lack of stability as it slipped off of the fighters heads more than a few times.
Today, karate helmets are mainly used in Taekwondo and children’s karate classes. Compared to boxing products karate gear is rather cheap to produce and to prchase. Prices start at 30 US$. Distributors include companies like Kwon, Century, Mudo, Adidas, Wesing and Macho. Some manufacturers offer add-on equipment such as steel bars and transparent face masks for attachment to the front of the gear. It is mainly used for self defense simulations.
Japanese Karate Helmets
Many alternative solutions were sought after in the creation of better and more durable helmets for the martial arts. Japanese engineers tried manufacturing inflatable head guards. The air-filled transparent helmets were tested during national competition in 1983. The experiment was cancelled after it failed to impress at the All Tokyo Championships in 1983. The protector encouraged participants to hit harder and injuries were not prevented.
There were other experiments with air-filled paddings by manufacturers from France in the coming years. They all failed. Air dampens soft strikes well, but once the cushioning containment has reached its flexibility limits it either allows the full force of the blow to make impact or the containment field bursts if the material lacks flexibility as the air has nowhere to escape.